History does not record who it was, but the incredible results of that inspirational moment are all around us – in the houses we live in, the bridges we cross, the furniture we sit on. Nails have been around for a long time. As soon as man discovered that heating iron ore could form metal, the ideas for shaping it quickly followed. Any sizeable Roman fortress would have its ‘fabrica’ or workshop where the blacksmiths would fashion the metal items needed by the army. They left behind 7 tons of nails at the fortress of Inchtuthil in Perthshire. For nail making, iron ore was heated with carbon to form a dense spongy mass of metal which was then fashioned into the shape of square rods and left to cool. The metal produced was wrought iron. After re-heating the rod in a forge, the blacksmith would cut off a nail length and hammer all four sides of the softened end to form a point.
The M1 Helmet of World War Two – the “steel pot”
Over the last 40 years, there has been a discernible increase in the number of scholars who have focused their research on early industrial organizations, a field of study that has come to be known as Archaeotechnology. Archaeologists have conducted fieldwork geared to the study of ancient technologies in a cultural context and have drawn on the laboratory analyses developed by materials scientists as one portion of their interpretive program.
Corroded iron from the Java Sea Wreck.
The idea of a ceremony for the Obligation of Canadian Engineers dates back to , when seven past-presidents of the Engineering Institute of Canada attended a meeting in Montreal with other engineers.
There have been some references to there being only 2 proto type knives being made in Possible that early serial ‘s were to If this is true, late serial would start with Special Forces Project Sigma engraved knives – serial ‘s to – in These are not counted in the qty made for The blades are 2 line marked on the logo side Sheath strap went from right side to left side near the beginning of production.
Fine serrations, which became an option from to , were 14 teeth per inch.
FRAME No BICYCLE DATING
Ancient steel[ edit ] Steel was known in antiquity and was produced in bloomeries and crucibles. It was originally created from a number of different materials including various trace elements , apparently ultimately from the writings of Zosimos of Panopolis. In BC, Alexander the Great was rewarded by the defeated King Porus , not with gold or silver but with 30 pounds of steel. The ancient Sinhalese managed to extract a ton of steel for every 2 tons of soil,  a remarkable feat at the time.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons.. Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its.
It happens to me once in a while. I found this wonderful simple formula for making a Cheese Dip. An everyone seems to love cheese! I love cheese, but only eat sheep or goat cheese. Central Market in Poulsbo has a wonderful selection and I am starting to see other markets carry more of a variety of them. You stand and talk and snack and life is good. If you follow the basic procedure for how to make baked cheese dips below, you can make one with whatever flavors and add-ins you want to suit your personal tastes.
Depending on how many things you mix into your dip, starting with one block of cream cheese will make you about 3 cups of dip, enough to feed about 8 to 10 people depending on how much dip they go for. Let your cream cheese sit out on the counter until it reaches room temperature. One of things I do is put it in a plastic bag, in a bowl of hot water.
This works to bring eggs to room temperature too!
Dating the M1 Steel Helmet
Rodney Alcala, known as “The Dating Game Killer” because he sought to use his appearance on the game show in his defense, was declared guilty of murdering year-old Robin Samsoe and four young women. Alcala previously had been convicted twice in the murder of the girl, but both times the verdict was overturned. Watch the full story Thursday on “Nightline” at He was charged with murdering the four women after new DNA evidence tied him to those crimes.
Play American Psycho Investigators suspect him of additional murders in California, New York City and possibly elsewhere, although he has not been charged.
This is a wonderful example of a Civil War era trunk that has been refinished. Due to the need for metal and leather in the Civil war era, these trunks were originally covered in paper and had very little tin used in their construction.
Iron oxide is a soft sandstone -like material with limited uses on its own. Iron is extracted from ore by removing the oxygen by combining it with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon. This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points. Both temperatures could be reached with ancient methods that have been used for at least six thousand years since the Bronze Age. Unlike copper and tin, liquid iron dissolves carbon quite readily, so that smelting results in an alloy containing too much carbon to be called steel.
Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions necessary to form different phases Even in the narrow range of concentrations that make up steel, mixtures of carbon and iron can form into a number of different structures, or allotropes, with very different properties; understanding these is essential to making quality steel. One way for carbon to leave the austenite is for cementite to precipitate out of the mix, leaving behind iron that is pure enough to take the form of ferrite, and resulting in a cementite-ferrite mixture.
Cementite is a stoichiometric phase with the chemical formula of Fe3C. Cementite forms in regions of higher carbon content while other areas revert to ferrite around it. Self-reinforcing patterns often emerge during this process, leading to a patterned layering known as pearlite due to its pearl -like appearance, or the similar but less beautiful bainite. Perhaps the most important allotrope is martensite, a chemically metastable substance with about four to five times the strength of ferrite.
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Younger Man / Older Woman
The rear seam on a World War II helmet. Facebook Twitter By Olivier C. It was during the First World War that the need for a modern combat helmet was first recognised.
Getting started I’ve converted some of the plane dating information found in Patrick Leach’s Plane Type Study into an easy-to-use hypertext flowchart. Hopefully by answering a few questions about your plane you can determine which type it is.
Abstract Muscovite is a mineral commonly found along quartz in sediments, where the latter is the mineral of choice in numerous optically stimulated luminescence OSL dating studies. Since muscovite cannot be efficiently eliminated following standard laboratory treatments, it is important to assess its luminescence properties. This study is focused on the investigation of muscovite hand-picked from a quartz sample extracted from loess and of museum specimens of muscovite in order to evaluate their potential implication in the OSL dating of quartz samples contaminated with muscovite grains.
The obtained results show that generally applicable luminescence characteristics cannot be described for muscovite. The blue light and infrared IR sensitivities differ between the samples: Based on the samples analysed in this study, aliquots of quartz contaminated with optically blue light sensitive muscovite would also be IR sensitive. Hence, potentially problematic aliquots can be identified via the IRSL purity test usually used in the OSL dating of quartz samples for detection of feldspar contamination.
The impact of muscovite on dose determination for quartz was also tested and it was concluded that at least in the case of bright quartz, muscovite minerals do not influence the OSL measurements. Previous article in issue.
Play media Local artisan cutting and filing animal horn to make combs in Alappuzha , Kerala Combs consist of a shaft and teeth that are placed at a perpendicular angle to the shaft. Combs can be made out of a number of materials, most commonly plastic , metal or wood. Combs made from ivory  and tortoiseshell  were once common but concerns for the animals that produce them have reduced their usage.
When made from wood, combs are largely made of boxwood , cherry wood or other fine-grained wood. Good quality wooden combs are usually handmade and polished.
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Outside hinge with 3 barrels: Many of the early hinges were replaced, as have been some later ones, so the hinge barrel count is not always absolutely accurate as it is possible a repair replacement has been made. The appearance wasn’t so great and there was a tendency to rust, so a black crackle paint was used on these lighters. Black crackle Zippos were apparently produced only for shipment to armed forces overseas and none were produced for domestic sales.
The difference between a and Zippo can be determined by the insert as the ones had markings on them. The information presented here came from researching a number of Internet sites with bits and pieces from each. Zippo records indicate an overlap of bottom stamp configurations from Some lighters produced between were date coded; however, specifics remain unclear.
Basically, steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction. Too little carbon content leaves pure iron quite soft, ductile, and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy commonly called pig iron. While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel.
Weathering steel, often referred to by the genericized trademark COR-TEN steel and sometimes written without the hyphen as corten steel, is a group of steel alloys which were developed to eliminate the need for painting, and form a stable rust-like appearance after several years exposure to weather.. U.S. Steel holds the registered trademark on the name COR-TEN.
Abetxuko Bridge by J. One example is the large Chicago Picasso sculpture, which stands in the plaza of the Daley Center Courthouse in Chicago, which is also constructed of weathering steel. It is very widely used in marine transportation, in the construction of intermodal containers  as well as visible sheet piling along recently widened sections of London’s M25 motorway.
The first use of weathering steel for architectural applications was the John Deere World Headquarters in Moline, Illinois. The building was designed by architect Eero Saarinen , and completed in In Denmark, all masts for supporting the catenary on electrified railways are made of weathering steel for aesthetic reasons.
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Posted 12 Jun 6: True that Fender Black tolex starts in but I think exterior logo started in , so if no logo and case is original then high odds is or I think this is as close as we get. The Klusen’s are stamped with two vertical lines of text which is post
The history of NAIL MAKING (this page contains the substance of an article entitled ‘Traditional Cut Nails – worth preserving?’ written in May at the request of, and for inclusion in, the RICS Building Conservation Journal). Imagine the limited aspirations of the first pre-bronze age constructor to join two pieces of wood with a sharp implement.
Clues to a Building’s History Thomas D. Visser Hand-wrought nail, before circa Type A cut nail, circa s s Type B cut nail, circa s s Wire nail, circa s to present Nails provide one of the best clues to help determine the age of historic buildings, especially those constructed during the nineteenth century, when nail-making technology advanced rapidly. Until the last decade of the s and the early s, hand-wrought nails typically fastened the sheathing and roof boards on building frames.
These nails were made one by one by a blacksmith or nailor from square iron rod. After heating the rod in a forge, the nailor would hammer all four sides of the softened end to form a point. The pointed nail rod was reheated and cut off. Then the nail maker would insert the hot nail into a hole in a nail header or anvil and form a head with several glancing blows of the hammer. The most common shape was the rosehead; however, broad “butterfly” heads and narrow L-heads also were crafted.