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They overtook girls in maths for the first time in 12 years and are gaining on them in other subjects. Girls are said to do better in coursework because they are more conscientious. Pupils celebrate their GCSE results at Brighton College but the figures have sparked fresh calls for the tests to be scrapped But it was ditched in maths two years ago and will be axed from several other key subjects from next month to stop pupils using the internet to cheat. The change is said to have helped boys beat girls in maths for the first time since It also helped them reduce the gender gap in overall results to its smallest for nearly two decades. The trend emerged as , candidates celebrated yet another record-breaking crop of GCSEs. More than a fifth –

UK landscapes – Edexcel

The youngster, who enjoys singing and watching television, starts primary school next month. Last November, she began attending Saturday classes with Excellence in Education, an educational charity which aims to help talented youngsters in inner cities. Maths is a big game with numbers. I’m very surprised to be the youngest ever. I’m very proud of myself. Despite this year’s surge in early entries, pass rates in English and maths rose again.

Geologists generally know the age of a rock by determining the age of the group of rocks, or formation, that it is found in. The age of formations is marked on a geologic calendar known as the geologic time scale. Development of the geologic time scale and dating of formations and rocks relies upon.

For this example, the term half time might be used instead of “half life”, but they mean the same thing. It varies depending on the atom type and isotope , and is usually determined experimentally. See List of nuclides. The half life of a species is the time it takes for the concentration of the substance to fall to half of its initial value. In non-exponential decay[ edit ] The term “half-life” is almost exclusively used for decay processes that are exponential such as radioactive decay or the other examples above , or approximately exponential such as biological half-life discussed below.

In a decay process that is not even close to exponential, the half-life will change dramatically while the decay is happening.

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However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that. More new posts will be added below this one. The essay below is the conclusion of the ninth part in a series by Takuan Seiyo. See the list at the bottom of this post for links to the previous installments.

Sep 18,  · Brain Rocks is like all these physics puzzles combined. HOW TO PLAY: The main task of every level is to load the rocks into the truck. – Draw with your finger on touchscreen certain shapes, that it will help the rocks fall into the truck/5().

Draw and label the apparatus you can use to separate a mixture of ethanol and water. To separate a mixture of ethanol and water, we can use a process known as fractional distillation. This technique relies on the fact that the compounds in the mixture have different boiling points. We know that ethanol boils at a lower temperature than water, the ethanol vaporizes while most of the water remains a liquid. Hence we can separate the mixture of ethanol and water through this process.

The boiling point of ethanol is 78 degrees and water is degrees. If the temperature is kept at around 80 degrees then all the ethanol will evaporate and will be collected. The water will be left behind in the flask. What is this method of separation called? This method of separation is known as Fractional Distillation. Explain why you would be able to collect a more concentrated sample of ethanol from a mixture of water and ethanol using the apparatus drawn in question 1 than by using simple distillation.

Be that as it may, it is hard to get unadulterated fluids from blends of fluids with comparable breaking points by simple distillation, as vapor is emitted from every fluid before they really achieve their boiling point. SO to help separation we use a fractionating column with glass beads fitted at the top of flask with mixture.

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Radioactive Dating Because the radioactive half-life of a given radioisotope is not affected by temperature, physical or chemical state, or any other influence of the environment outside the nucleus save direct particle interactions with the nucleus, then radioactive samples continue to decay at a predictable rate and can be used as a clock. This makes several types of radioactive dating feasible. For geologic dating, where the time span is on the order of the age of the earth and the methods use the clocks in the rocks , there are two main uncertainties in the dating process: What was the amount of the daughter element when the rocks were formed?

GCSE Physics is one of seven qualifications in our Science for all suite, developed with teachers to inspire and challenge students of all abilities and aspirations.. We tell a coherent and logical story through physics, with new topics based on feedback from you.

The animation below shows a smoke detector with the radioisotope Americium as the alpha source. Smoke detectors make use of the ionising properties of alpha particles. They contain an ionisation chamber which consists of a positive and negative electrode along with a very small amount of the radioisotope Americium Amercium has a half life of years and is a good source of alpha particles.

The long half life is useful as it ensures a continuous source of alpha particles meaning the detector is very reliable and will not stop functioning. It also means the alarm does not require regular replacement; however the battery does require regular replacing and this is indicated by a warning beep or light on the alarm. The ionisation chamber consists of open channels allowing the air form the room to flow through it. The alpha particles emitted from the Americium collide with the oxygen and nitrogen molecules in the air causing them to ionise.

Thus the alpha particles knock off an electron from the oxygen and nitrogen molecules resulting in negatively charged electrons and positively charged atoms. The negatively charge electrons are attracted to the positive electrode and the positively charged atoms to the negative electrode. A very small current is generated which is detected by the electrical circuit in the smoke detector. When smoke enters the ionisation chamber the alpha particles collide with the smoke particles instead of the air particles.

The collisions with smoke particles does not result in ionisation so the current drops.

Working with Schools: Secondary

Describe how carbon can be used to date formerly living material see pages to Describe how radioactivity can be used to date rocks see pages and State some of the health hazards of ionising radiation and give some the precautions that can be taken see pages and What is the problem of nuclear waste and how is it dealt with? Answer the questions on pages and Verify that you can do all of the items listed in the end of chapter checklist on page Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.

Geologists use radiometric dating to estimate how long ago rocks formed, and to infer the ages of fossils contained within those rocks. Radioactive elements decay The universe is full of naturally occurring radioactive elements. Radioactive atoms are inherently unstable; over time, radioactive.

Our FREE worksheet for kids on Rock Cycle includes a fun word searching puzzle combined with a fun hidden words puzzle game for children. This fun and educational printable Earth Science worksheet about Rock Cycle is truly FREE for anyone to download and use at no cost and you are permitted to use the FREE activity sheet for kids as often as you require for homeschooling or in school! Additionally, younger kids in Kindergarten or even Pre-K kids will also easily learn from this free Rock Cycle worksheet for kids.

Elementary school kids from first Grade to Fifth Grade can enjoy our Rock Cycle worksheet as a reading comprehension tool. Your children shall learn very well as your children will very likely end up needing to read a few times the Rock Cycle fun facts to discover all the missing words. Kindergarten and Preschool kids who did not yet learn to read can benefit from the free fun facts Rock Cycle worksheet as a fun and educational listening comprehension game.

Educators can read out loud to the kids the Rock Cycle fun facts. Next, they ask the children to recognize what they reckon were the missing words. Additionally, the child learns to identify words and find them in the Rock Cycle free printable science worksheet. Parents doing early learning activities with their kids can use our Rock Cycle worksheet to spend quality time teaching their kids about Rock Cycle. Most beneficial is to utilize our free science worksheet for children on Rock Cycle in conjunction with the free interactive online quiz with score on Rock Cycle.

Download and use our fun science word puzzles to make learning science fun for your children! What do you know about the Rock Cycle?

AQA GCSE Physics Key Words

New information needed to be introduced with parent and daughter isotopes. Once students are in their groups, with supplies, and general directions are given, they are on their own for doing their runs. They will do this 8 times. Once they are finished with their 8 runs, they will record their data on the class data table which can be on the board.

Relative dating is common when comparing layers of rocks in different regions, and figuring out which fossil is older by comparing the rock layers the fossils are in. Absolute dating gives an actual date in history that the item was formed or died.

A thin beam of alpha particle was shot through the very thing gold foil. The inside of the equipment was coated with zinc sulphide photographic film which would change color if alpha particles hit it. This allowed the scientist to see where the alpha particles went after they hit the gold foil. A vacuum was created inside the apparatus to remove all the air so that the alpha particles are not obstructed by the air.

When the experiment was carried out, Geiger and Marsden discovered that not all alpha particles went straight through the thin gold leaf. Some of the deflected a little bit and very few came back to the source. With this information the concluded that there was a concentration of positive charge in the atoms which was causing the positively charged alpha particles to repel and delect back. The also concluded that only a small part of the atom had concentration of positive charge and the rest was empty space as the detected particles were very few and most other particles went straight through.

The deflection of alpha particles increases if we reduce the speed of the particles or increase the positive charge in the atoms, by having an element that has more protons.

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Filed under Pagadian City The Philippines, being a country archipelago of islands and seas, have naturally wonderful beaches, some of which are famous the world over. Beaches like Puerto Galera, Boracay, and the various beaches in Cebu rake in tourists from around the world all year round because of their pristine and cool blue waters and fine, white-sand shores. However, if one will just look around more, they will find that there are other less-known but equally beautiful beach spots in other parts of the Philippines.

Physics, and amazon was, and remaining activity in these will develop an artifact. Help with gcse science project: philosophy and a2 level physics major from y. But does this is the age of old a nonmetal.

How do scientists date fossils? For relatively recent fossils, dating by carbon 14 is the most accurate method. For older fossils it is necessary to analyse the geological layer in which they are found; fossils located in an undisturbed geological layer of a certain age, are the same age as the layer in which they are found, neces…sarily. MORE Two methods scientists date fossil remains? Scientists take samples of the carbon remaining in the fossil.

They then use a form of carbon dating to determine its age.. Just wanted to clarify that a little bit more! In all cases the scientist is trying to measure the amount of radioactive decay of carbon isotopes in order to establish the amount of time that has passed since the death of a living thing. As such all methods are based on establishing the remaining carbon in a sample. However the specific …type of carbon dating being used will dictate how this is done. In the traditional approach the scientist is actually measuring the levels of beta activity from a sample.

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The age of archaeological specimens can be calculated by looking at the amount of carbon in a sample. The method is a form of radiodating called carbon dating. Radiodating can also be used to date rocks.

GCSE GATEWAY SCIENCE PHYSICS B B/02 Physics modules P4, P5, P6 (Higher Tier) Relative Dating Absolute Dating Method Find out where plant fossils are in layers of rocks. Newer rocks are Another method uses radioactive dating of rocks by calculating the ratio of two metals in the rocks.

The half-life of a radioisotope can be used to measure the age of things. The method is called radiodating. Radiodating can be used to measure the age of rocks see below and carbon dating can be used to date archaeological specimens. Using Uranium to Date Rock. Some rocks contain uranium which is radioactive and follows a decay series until it produces a stable isotope of lead. The amount of uranium in the rock is compared to the amount of lead and then the age of the rock can be calculated.

For example, it is found that there are equal amounts of uranium and lead in a rock. The proportion of uranium to lead would be 1 to 1 equal amounts. You can only use the ratio of uranium to lead to date rock if you are sure that there was no lead originally present in the rock and that all the lead in the rock has come from the decay of uranium. Using Potassium to Date Rock. Some rocks contain the radioisotope potassium which decays to form argon Argon is a stable isotope.


Sometimes some nuclei do this of their own accord this is called spontaneous fission. In situations such as a nuclear reactor, ‘induced’ fission occurs as a result of when large stable nuclei are bombarded with neutrons. Nuclear reactors use fission to produce nuclear energy. The energy released by an atom during radioactive disintegration or nuclear fission is very large compared to the energy released when a chemical bond is made between two atoms.

Earth Sciences – The Calcium Cycle (1) Limestone: Calcium is a very common element in nature. It occurs most commonly in limestone rock as calcium carbonate, CaCO one itself is used in many industrial processes, e.g. to make iron in the Blast Furnace, as a component of cement and in the manufacture of glass. Limestone is commonly mines in open-cast mines, where the rock is blasted .

Local lichen species with suitable growth patterns for use in dating. Material Availability Availability of suitable lichen species can depend on geographic area. This is an abbreviated Project Idea, without notes to start your background research, a specific list of materials, or a procedure for how to do the experiment. You can identify abbreviated Project Ideas by the asterisk at the end of the title.

If you want a Project Idea with full instructions, please pick one without an asterisk. Abstract Have you ever noticed an old stone wall and wondered how long it has been there? If there is lichen growing on the wall, the lichen has most likely been living there since the time the wall was made, so if you could figure out how old the lichen is then you could deduce the age of the wall. Geologies use this method, called lichenometry, and other methods to establish dates and temporal sequences as they seek to construct a history from the available evidence.

In this geology science project, you will use lichenometry as a method for dating relatively recent events in your area, such as the formation of a manmade or geological feature or a disturbance in your area for example, the building of a stone wall, the occurrence of a rock slide, or when a road was cut. A trained geologist can “read” ancient history in layers of rocks.

The ability to establish dates and temporal sequences of rock formations is, in fact, essential for piecing together the earth’s history. Most of the methods used for dating rocks rely on specialized equipment that can measure the presence or relative proportion of specific isotopes in the rock. In this science project, you will use lichenometry, a much more accessible method for dating relatively recent events up to hundreds of years ago, or perhaps as many as ten thousand years ago.


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